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Past Articles Library | Fruit Growing Tips | Successfully Grow Berries



Successfully grow a variety of small,
but wonderful berries

- Part 2 of 2 -

Last month we took a look at what are commonly known as "bush-type" berries such as blueberries, currants, gooseberries, and strawberries. If you didn't read part 1 and you would like to, here is the link: How To Successfully Grow A Variety Of Wonderful Berries Part 1.

This month we are going to finish off the wonderful world of berries by looking at the bramble-type berries such as raspberries, blackberries, and boysenberries. Because the growing and care of brambles is so similar, we will be talking about all three at the same time.

So let's get started so you can begin to grow your bramble berries, and experience a wonderful fruit-filled summer and fall!


Raspberry
Rubus spp.
Deciduous Shrub, Zones 3 - 8

Blackberry
Rubus spp.
Deciduous Shrub, Zones 5 - 9

Boysenberry **
Rubus spp.
Hardiness varies, most adapted to Zones 8 - 9

** Hybrids between raspberry and blackberry are Boysenberry (also Tayberry, Olallieberry, Loganberry, Wineberry), but we're only going to talk about Boysenberries in this article.

Overview:

Brambles grow from perennial roots that produce thorny biennial canes. Both raspberries and blackberries, are considered a real gourmet treat, not because they are hard to grow, but because they don't ship well.

You will enjoy bramble-type berries much more if you grow them at home, not only because they will taste better, but because any left over fresh berries you have can be made into jam, pies, or frozen for future use. They are such versatile fruit.

  • Raspberries

    Raspberries come in two fruiting types. Summer Bearing and Everbearing.

    Summer Bearing

    These varieties carry one crop of berries on the over-wintering canes during the summer months. Plants begin fruiting in the early summer, and the season lasts approximately 4-5 weeks.

    Everbearing (Fall Bearing)

    These varieties produce two crops; the largest is borne in the late summer or early fall on the tips of canes that grew throughout the summer. A second crop is then carried lower on those same canes early the next summer.

    Raspberries come in several types: red, gold, black and purple.

    Red and yellow varieties known as everbearing, or fall-bearing, produce two crops on the same canes, one in the fall of the first year, the second in the summer of the next year.

    After fruiting in the second year, the canes die and need to be pruned out. This is very important, and we'll get into more detail in a minute.

  • Blackberries

    Blackberries come in 2 main types: Erect and Trailing.

    The erect type has canes that can reach 5 feet (1.5 m) tall, are four-sided, and can stand without support. They are also a bit hardier than the trailing types in colder weather.

    The trailing type has canes that can reach 15 feet (4.5 m) in length and which trail over the ground unless supported.

Selecting Plants

Try and choose plants that are one-year old dormant plants with lots of roots. Brambles are self-fertile, so you can plant just one cultivar and get fruit.

Try also to choose virus-free plants because virus infection is the number one disease problem for brambles.

Cultural Requirements

Brambles do best in well-drained fertile soil in full sun with plenty of air movement. If your area is very windy, provide the vines with a windbreak to reduce canes breaking and thorn damage.

They do well with a rich, slightly acid soil with a pH of 6 to 6.5.

Planting

Plant brambles in the spring or fall, during the dormant season. If you do choose to plant in the fall, make sure you mulch liberally, to prevent frost from heaving the plants out of the soil.

Also, try and avoid planting brambles where you have previously grown tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, or eggplants, which may have tainted the soil with verticillium wilt.

This is a disease that brambles are quite susceptible to, and while you can try and buy disease resistant varieties, it's better to start your plants off in the most ideal environment you can, and that's clean soil.

Spacing is important because it will give you enough room to walk and work between the rows:

  • Raspberries are usually planted 1.5 to 3 feet (.5 - 1 m) apart in rows that are 7 to 8 feet (2 - 2.4 m) apart.

  • Blackberries and hybrid boysenberries are usually planted 3 to 6 feet (1 - 1.8 m) apart in rows that are 8 to 10 feet (2.4 - 3 m) apart.

When planting, choose a site in full sun because in the shade they won't bear as much fruit, and they will be more susceptible to mildew. In addition, all brambles do well in raised beds or individual raised hills so you may want to consider this option if it works for you.

For bountiful berries, prepare your soil with lots of compost and 2 weeks before planting work in some alfalfa meal, about 10 to 20 pounds (4.5 to 9 kg) per 1,000 square feet (93 square meters). Alfalfa meal can be found at any feed store.

Extra Tip: On planting day, soak the brambles' roots in compost tea for 20 minutes, and before setting the plants in the ground, dust the roots of each plant with a mix of bonemeal, and kelp.

Planting In A Container

Brambles can be planted in containers, but you will have to provide a stake or some form of trellis for them to grow upon. They can be grown along a wall or in raised beds, so there are many different opportunities for you to provide a structure for them.

In very cold areas, container-grown berries need extra protection in the winter since their roots are less protected than they would be in the ground. Pile large garbage bags filled with leaves around the container to provide extra insulation.

Care

Brambles need a steady supply of water throughout the growing season. Drip irrigation is great for brambles because it gives the plants moisture without getting the foliage wet and risking disease.

Brambles are shallow rooted plants and do benefit greatly from a thick layer of organic mulch to help keep the roots moist and cool.

Fertilize with 10 to 15 pounds (4.5 - 6.8 kg) of compost per 10 feet (3 m) of row in the late winter. Black raspberries are especially heavy feeders, so you may want to give them a little extra.

Trellising

Some brambles, like erect-type blackberries, will grow fine without trellising, but for the most part, brambles that are supported do better. Trellising makes it easier for you to harvest the fruit, and it exposes the canes to better air circulation and sunlight, decreasing disease.

The basic trellis for brambles consists of one or more wires stretched between posts set in the ground. It can be as simple as a single wire 4 to 5 feet (1.2 - 1.5 m) off the ground. Then just tie the canes up after pruning, or as they grow.

There are many different ways to trellis, and some get very complicated, but all you need is a simple trellis as mentioned here. I like to keep it simple, but by all means, do what suits you best.

Pruning

Brambles are perennials, but their canes live for only 2 growing seasons. Each individual cane dies after bearing its summer crop of berries.

After the first year, the patch will have a mix of fruiting canes and juvenile canes, so pruning brambles involves selectively pruning the plants to remove the canes that have borne fruit and are going to die.

After the original canes bear fruit, cut them to the ground. Then select the best 5 to 12 new canes and train these up. They will bear fruit next summer. Cut any other remaining canes to the ground.

  • Raspberries

    Many commercial growers keep the business of pruning raspberries very easy. For fall, or everbearing, raspberries, they simply cut all of the canes off at ground level during the winter and harvest just the fall crop of berries.

    Then they let the fall-fruiting canes overwinter and allow them to bear a second, much smaller crop of berries the next summer.

Harvest and Storage

For best flavor, pick bramble fruits when they are thoroughly ripe. Ripe fruits are soft and come free from the plant with little effort.

Unlike other fruit, brambles will not ripen off the vine, so be patient, and allow them to ripen fully on the vine.

  • Raspberries are ripe when they come off their cores very easily.

  • Blackberries, when they are ripe, stay attached to their cores, but the berry separates easily from the stem.

Put harvested fruit in shallow containers no more than 3 or 4 berries deep or else you will crush the berries. They don't last long and are perishable, so store them no longer than 2 or 3 days in the refrigerator.

Raspberry Varieties

  • Red and Yellow Varieties

    'Anne' - Everbearing - Large apricot gold berries
    'Autumn Bliss' - Everbearing - Very large red berries

  • Black and Purple Varieties

    'Brandywine' - Large purple berries
    'Munger' - Medium black berries
    'Royalty' - Very productive, high quality fruit

Blackberry Varieties

  • Trailing Varieties

    'Boysen' (boysenberry) - Large black berries
    'Olallie' (Olallieberry) - Large black berries


Red Raspberry:




Gold or Yellow Raspberry:




Black Raspberry:




Purple Raspberry:




Blackberry:




Boysenberry:




Erect Canes:




Trailing Canes on Trellis:




Trellis Structure:





Conclusion

Overall, bramble berries are very easy to grow, and as you know, many of them grow wild and thrive like weeds once they find a place they like.

The biggest thing with brambles is to prepare the soil really well before you plant, prune out old canes, mulch and water liberally, and you will have delicious berries year after year.

I think one of the best things about berries is that no one ever seems to get tired of them. It's not like when you plant too many zucchini or squash and you are at wit's end as to what to do with all of them.

I have never had a problem offering extra berries to neighbors or friends, the delicious fruit is always welcomed, which probably does make up for all the times I have given away too many zucchini!

Have fun growing them, and happy eating.






Hilary Rinaldi is a member of the National Garden Writers Association, a nationally published writer, and a certified organic grower. She regularly speaks and writes about all gardening related topics, with an emphasis on making gardening a successful and enjoyable process for anyone who wants to learn. Weekend Gardener Monthly Web Magazine concentrates of giving detailed gardening tips and gardening advice to all levels of gardeners.



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